An alloy is a solid solution or homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, which itself has metallic properties. It usually has different properties from those of its component elements.
An acid (asam) (often represented by the generic formula HA [H+A-]) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water, i.e. a pH less than 7.0. That approximates the modern definition of Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Martin Lowry, who independently defined an acid as a compound which donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound (called a base). Common examples include acetic acid (in vinegar) and sulfuric acid (used in car batteries). Acid/base systems are different from redox reactions in that there is no change in oxidation state.
a base (basa) is most commonly thought of as an aqueous substance that can accept protons. This refers to the Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases. Alternate definitions of bases include electron pair donors (Lewis), as sources of hydroxide anions (Arrhenius) and can be (commonly) thought of as any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH higher than 7.0. Examples of simple bases are sodium hydroxide and ammonia.
A Salt, in chemistry, is defined as the product formed from the neutralisation reaction of acids and bases. Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic such as chloride (Cl−), as well as organic such as acetate (CH3COO−) and monoatomic ions such as fluoride (F−), as well as polyatomic ions such as sulfate (SO42−).
The electron is a fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. It is a spin ½ lepton that participates in electromagnetic interactions, and its mass is approximately 1 / 1836 of that of the proton. Together with atomic nuclei, which consist of protons and neutrons, electrons make up atoms. The electron(s) interaction with electron(s) of adjacent nuclei is the main cause of chemical bonding.
The kinetic energy of an object is the extra energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its current velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. Negative work of the same magnitude would be required to return the body to a state of rest from that velocity.
Potential energy can be thought of as energy stored within a physical system. It is called potential energy because it has the potential to be converted into other forms of energy, such as kinetic energy, and to do work in the process. The standard (SI) unit of measure for potential energy is the joule, the same as for work, or energy in general.
Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze (i.e. increase the rates of) chemical reactions. Almost all enzymes are proteins. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are extremely selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell.
In classical mechanics, centrifugal force (from Latin centrum "center" and fugere "to flee") is an apparent force acting outward from the axis of rotation of a rotating reference frame.
A centrifugal force is a particular kind of fictitious force (also known as a pseudo force, inertial force or d'Alembert force), that exists for observers in a rotating reference frame. Unlike real forces such as electromagnetic forces, fictitious forces do not originate from physical interactions between objects.
In a frame that rotates about a fixed axis, the fictitious forces present are the centrifugal force and the Coriolis force, to which is added the Euler force when the rate of rotation varies. Any object, viewed from a rotating frame, is subject to a centrifugal force which depends only on the position and the mass of the object, and is oriented outward from the axis of rotation of the rotating frame. The Coriolis force depends on both the velocity and mass of the object, and is directed perpendicular to its velocity, but is independent of its position. The Euler force depends on the mass and position of the object, and on the angular acceleration of the reference frame.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of aggregation (or simply state) of matter from gaseous phase into liquid phase. When the transition happens from the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, bypassing the liquid phase the change is called deposition, which is the opposite of sublimation.